Degree of protection, IP

This article is intended to answer questions about the degree of protection of the equipment against dust and moisture. Many people encounter the IP marking and wonder, - IP 65 what does it mean? Let's consider the standards used in Russia and show a detailed table of IP abbreviations.

The IP (Ingress Protection Rating) is a systematization of the enclosure protection (meaning the external coating) of electrical appliances and electrical equipment against all kinds of negative conditions, such as the effects of humidity, open liquid penetration, contamination, as well as the effects of different environments.
This numerical index defines the international IP standard. These include the International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 60529, in the CIS, GOST 14254-96, GOST 14254 and in Germany, DIN40050-9.

The current standard IEC 60529:2013 was adopted in 2013. The current GOST 14254 - 2015 was introduced in the Russian Federation in 2017.03.01. It differs from the previous GOST 14254-96 by the index of protection against moisture: the new current GOST 14254 - 2015 adopted 10 indices from 0 to 9. Index IPX9 denotes protection against high temperature water jets, which are fed under high pressure (see below). Current GOSTs for the IP degree of protection:

  • IEC 60529:2013,
  • GOST 14254 - 2015,
  • DIN40050-9,
  • DIN EN 60529 (VDE 0470).
The degree of protection is taken into account when selecting various industrial equipment, taking into account the external environment where it will be used. For example, when a change of wiring at home is planned, when selecting the switchboard, the negative environmental conditions must be taken into account. Certain impacts will occur on appliances and equipment that are outdoors or in the building.

For electrical products, the protection class is given as IP [digit 1] [digit 2].

[number 1] indicates the protection class of the external environment.

Seven levels of protection from external objects from 0 to 6 are standardized:


– no protection from external objects;


– The trim has protection against the impact of foreign objects with a diameter of 50 mm or more, against contact with the back side of the hand;


– Protection against the negative action of foreign objects with a diameter greater than 12.5 mm, against touching the housing with the fingers;


– there is protection against the action of foreign objects with a diameter greater than 2.5 mm, conductors, small tools (hand-held);


– protection against foreign objects with a diameter of 1 mm or more - these are conductors, securing nuts, bolts;


– full protection against foreign objects, of any size, incomplete protection against dirt and dust (a small amount of dust is allowed to fly inside the enclosure, which does not affect the functionality of the devices inside the electrical panel);


– full protection from various objects, full dust-tightness.

IP moisture resistance

[цифра 2] demonstrates the degree of protection against the negative effects of moisture (exposure to liquid, damp). There are 10 degrees of protection against moisture:


– no protection;


– the shell has protection against condensate moisture, raindrops falling in a strictly vertical position;


– There is protection of the body from drips, the angle of incidence up to 15 gr.;


– There is protection against drops, the angle of incidence up to 60 gr.;


– There is protection against liquid droplets of any orientation;


– protection against short exposure to a stream (jet) of liquid of random direction;


– protection of the hull from prolonged exposure to strong liquid flow (water) of accidental direction, as well as from waves at sea;


– there is a protection against penetration of moisture into the interior of the equipment housing during short-term immersion in liquid (water) to a depth of up to 1 m. In this case there can be penetration of a small volume of liquid in the middle, which does not detect adverse effects on the performance of products;


– there is a protection against leakage of liquid inside the products when immersed to a specified depth for a specified period of time). The housing of the products in this variant is fully waterproof;


– there is a protection against hot jets of pressurized water inside the products.
The degree of protection of the external enclosure (shell) against the influence of a negative external condition is established on the basis of the performance of the test of the operating element. The following tables give a detailed deciphering of the degrees of protection, test methods and sequences of their performance.

For a better presentation of the IP protection classification, we attach the figure:

Now consider the common levels of light source protection


– Standard protection ratings for typical applications. These tapes are used for indoor lighting in dry, normal, uncontaminated environments. For example, in apartments, offices, stores, warm and dry industrial environments;


– this degree of protection is standard for the dust- and waterproof version. The tapes can be washed without any consequences. They are often used to illuminate private areas (medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics), food processing shops, areas with a high content of moisture and dust, as well as in places where water does not accumulate;


– The degree of protection provides increased dust and moisture resistance of the tape. These tapes can be safely washed with pressurized water and used in dusty environments. Although they are not fully waterproof (they cannot be immersed in water), they still function even when moisture penetrates to a great extent;


– maximum protection of the tapes against dust and moisture. These tapes are fully dustproof and waterproof. They can withstand a long or permanent stay under water, so they can be used for underwater lighting of fountains, swimming pools.

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